Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Kenneth DeBono




emotions, feedback, label, perceptions


Whereas previous research has investigated emotional reactions to positive and negative events and feedback, there is little evidence indicating which has a greater effect on individuals. The current research examined whether winning or losing has a stronger impact on individuals, focusing on if being labeled a “winner” or “loser” could enhance differences in emotion. Participants were randomly assigned to win or lose word search tasks, and were also randomly assigned to receive a “winner” or “loser” label after each task. Then, they completed a questionnaire that measured their current levels of positive and negative affect. Results indicated that people experienced more positive affect after winning than negative affect after losing. Although not to a significant degree, when individuals were labeled a “loser”, they experienced a greater difference in positive and negative affect than receiving no label. This research therefore provides insight into an important field of study: if people are more concerned with being a “winner” or merely not being a “loser”.