AR Blockers

Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Jennifer Currey

Second Advisor

Takashi Buma

Third Advisor

Shane Cotter


dialysis, recirculation, cannulation, fistula, kidney


Access Recirculation (AR) severely decreases the efficiency of dialysis while having the potential to lead to a variety of complications (Fig. 3). If recirculation occurs during treatment, the patient may be at risk of developing stenosis (narrowing of blood vessels), leading to thrombosis (the local coagulation/clotting of blood) [4]. The most influential cause of recirculation results from the misplacement of the arterial and venous needles that will significantly harm the patient, wasting both money and resources. It is clear that the medical community has focused their energy on developing a proactive approach to monitoring AR, instead of preventing it. Creating biomedical devices that closely monitor the occurrence of AR isn’t sufficient enough. In order to prevent further complications and ensure dialysis is as efficient as possible, the goal should be to eliminate AR. There is a clear need for a device that can be implemented during hemodialysis treatments to reduce the percentage of recirculated blood, thus, reducing the occurrence of treatment for an individual and aiding the nurses in proper needle placement.