Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Jennifer Currey

Second Advisor

Tekashi Buma

Third Advisor

Shane Cotter


Kidney Stone, Ureteroscope, Nitinol, Basket, Ureter


Renal lithiasis, commonly referred to as “kidney stones” is a condition in which the urine composition crystallizes and cannot pass through the ureter, causing pain and discomfort. Renal lithiasis can be caused by diet, infection, reduced water retention, or hereditary disorders; each of which results in a distinct stone composition [1]. Stone compositions can vary between calcium oxalate, struvite, uric acid, and cystine[2]. Each stone type, however, provides the same pain to the patient and the same potential risk of blocking the urinary system.

Kidney stone symptoms may include but are not limited to: pain in the lower back, the presence of blood in the urine, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, and reduced amounts of urine [2]. It is expected that 1 in every 10 Americans will have kidney stones at some point in their life [3], totalling approximately 24 million men and women each year, primarily within ages ranging from 20-50 years old [4].