Biomarker and neuropsychological outcomes with long-term use of the interactive Physical and Cognitive Exercise System (iPACESTM v2.0) for MCI

Date of Award


Document Type

Restricted (Opt-Out)

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



First Advisor

Cay Anderson-Hanley

Second Advisor

Brian Cohen




cognitive, changes, physical, biomarker, change


Dementia cases are on the rise given our aging global population, and thus there is increasing urgency to identify efficacious interventions for preserving or ameliorating cognitive decline. Physical exercise, cognitive training and combined physical and cognitive interventions have been found to slow the decline of cognitive abilities in those with mild cognitive impairment, but the biological mechanisms underlying these changes need further clarification. This quasi-experimental within-subjects design compared changes in cognition and biomarkers over a three-month in-home intervention. Incremental change during the familiarization period was evaluated through two-week exposures to component parts of the interactive physical and cognitive exercise system (iPACES™v2.0). Additionally, change was evaluated over three months of the iPACES intervention. Biomarker levels of salivary Cortisol, IGF1 and DHEAS were analyzed using enzyme-linkedimmunosorbentassays. Cognitive outcomes focused on executive function. This pilot study enrolled 14 older adults, 13 of which met screening criteria for MCI (MoCA(p=0.01)). Furthermore, the changes for cognition were moderately correlated with biomarker changes (cortisol and Stroop (r= -.98, p =0.022), and IGF1 and Wordlist Total (r= .95, p =0.048)) suggesting a link between neurobiological mechanisms and cognitive outcomes. Further research is needed to replicate and extend this pilot research.

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