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Solar tracking is related to moving the solar panels in such a way that its solar panel always points toward the sun which results in maximum output. The goal of this research was to modify and improve a two-axis solar tracking system. The rotation of the module is controlled by a rotational motor and the tilt is controlled by a linear actuator. The motion and direction of these two motors is controlled by an Arduino code which compares the electrical current going through four mini solar collectors (used as sensors) mounted in orthogonal pairs at the top of the PV panel. If a solar collector has a higher current reading, then it is exposed to more sunlight, so the panel is adjusted until all of the mini solar collectors have nearly the same current output, and thus are receiving the same amount of sunlight. Testing of the designed system was performed alongside an identical, stationary solar panel, which allows for a direct comparison between the electrical outputs of the two solar panels.
Al-Moghrabi, Zaid, "Modification and Analysis of a Two-Axis Solar Tracking System" (2018). Steinmetz Symposium Posters. 10.