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Philadelphia has a long history of being a major player in the industrial revolution, particularly in the manufacturing of lead paint and varnishes. Philadelphia was home to manufacturers like ‘Philadelphia Lead Works,’ and the ‘National Lead Company.’ At one time, Philadelphia had 36 active lead smelters, almost twice more than any other industrial city, consequently causing higher lead concentrations than Flint, Michigan.
Philadelphia Inquirer, https://www.inquirer.com/news/philadelphia-schoolslead- poisoning-children-reform-soil-asbestos-mold-cancer-fishtown-construction- 20181227.html
Goodman, Molly, "Lead in Philadelphia’s Soils" (2019). 2019 Op-Eds. 6.